The Glossary consists of a list of Chinese terms or short phrases, mainly in Cantonese, extracted from the Telegram channels related to the social movement. It includes frequent use of hashtags and those the research team considers to give contextual background for researchers who have little knowledge about the movement and the local language. These terms are translated into English and categorised according to their nature (editing of English translations ongoing).

1. Characters and other Proper Nouns




Literally “hands and feet”; comrade. Protesters and pro-movement citizens used this term to denote fellow protesters.


A righteous person. It shares a similar meaning as “手足”, but often refers to those who made sacrifices. For example, Leung Ling-kit (梁凌杰), who pleaded with the government to withdraw the extradition amendment bill before falling to his death on 15 June 2019, was addressed as “梁凌杰義士”  or  “梁義士” (by his surname).



Babies. Young protesters, who are babies or beloved ones of middle-aged protesters.


Sons and daughters. Carries the same meaning as “寶寶” (babies).

#絲打 #巴打

Sister and brother. These Cantonese terms first appeared on the popular Hong Kong discussion forum HKGolden and were created to imitate the English pronunciation of sister and brother, respectively. They are used by protesters to denote their fellow protesters of the two genders.


Parents. Middle-aged protesters who often offer logistical support, like money, supplies or even shelter, to young protesters.


The “silver-hair” gang. Older protesters.



An abbreviation of “和平” (peaceful), “理性” (rational), “非暴力” (non-violence). It refers to protesters who embrace these principles. It first appeared as a pejorative term during the 2014 Umbrella Movement as an insult to peaceful protesters. It has now become a more neutral term as each group of protesters are recognized for playing specific roles in the movement.


Keyboard fighters. It first appeared in early 2010s in the Hong Kong online community as a pejorative term to refer to people who just sit in front of the computer to criticize without taking any action. It has now become a more neutral term to denote protesters contributing to the movement via online activities, such as taking part in online promotion campaigns, signing online petitions for international sanctions, making complaints to various government departments, paying taxes dollar by dollar online, etc.


The valiant. Frontline protesters who confront the police. Most of them follow black bloc tactics, dressing in all black with protective gear and usually obscuring their identities.

#後勤 #物資

Logistics. Protesters who provide logistical support and deliver supplies (物資) to the frontline, especially during a confrontation.


The frontline or frontline protesters. Protesters who engage with the police.


Scouts. Protesters who collect intelligence of police deployment and movement at and around protest sites.


Magician. The Chinese character “師” means professional practitioners. When playing massively multiplayer online role-playing games, players have to choose their profession (like warrior or magician) and become different types of “師”. As many younger protesters compared the protests to these online games, they named protesters as different types of “師” by their role. This term, literally meaning magicians, refers to protesters who fight against the police in extraordinary ways. For example, “火魔法師”, fire magicians, are those throwing petrol bombs at police.


Those who set barricades (結界) to stop the police from charging.


The demon (妖) choppers or hunters. First appeared after Junius Ho, the pro-government and pro-China lawmaker who was allegedly colluding with thugs to attack protesters and citizens in Yuen Long district on 21 July 2019, was attacked by someone with a knife. As Ho was nicknamed as “何妖” (Ho the devil), it inspired protesters to create this new “profession”, calling for people to form teams to attack top government officials and pro-China or pro-government figures.

#藍屍 or #藍絲 #黃屍 or 黃絲

“藍絲” (Blue ribbon) and “黃絲” (Yellow ribbon) refer to citizens from the pro-police, pro-government or pro-China camp and the pro-democracy or pro-movement camp, respectively. This categorization first appeared during the 2014 Umbrella Movement when people wore ribbons of the two colors or used such symbols in social media to indicate their political views. Sometimes, “絲” (ribbon) is replaced by its Cantonese homophone “屍” (corpse or zombie), which carries a pejorative meaning.


Hong Kong pig. Refers to people who are politically apathetic and generally dismissive of social movements.



陳彥霖 (Chan Yin lam), a 15-year-old student found dead in the sea. Her naked corpse, like many cases during the movement, was found on 19 September 2019 . The police said she committed suicide after a preliminary investigation. As she was reportedly an active participant of the movement and a good swimmer, her death has become a key subject in the conspiracy theory that alleges Hong Kong police have been murdering protesters and using suicide as cover-ups.


周梓樂 (Chow Tsz-lok) was a student at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology who died after sustaining severe head injuries from his fall from a multi-storey car park near a protest site in Tseung Kwan O. Reports allege police delayed emergency response to the scene and video footage that circulated online led to allegations that he was pushed by police officers when serving as a scout.



Pepe the Frog, the internet cartoon character that first appeared in the US online community. Hong Kong protesters appropriated it for stickers and posters. Unlike in the US, Pepe does not carry the symbolism of racism in Hong Kong. See

#連豬 #連狗

Denoting LIHKG Pig (or LiPIG) and LIHKG Dog (LiDog), respectively. They are the two common icons on LIHKG, a Reddit-like forum in Hong Kong.





LiPIG Pick. This was created to imitate the Cantonese pronunciation of Michelin, the famous restaurant guide, so as to label restaurants who support the movement.





The abbreviation of the Chinese term “暴徒 (Rioters) 大學(university)”. It refers to the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK), as it was once marked as the “Rioters University” on Google Map in June 2019, possibly because CUHK students are well known for their activism. However, they took it as a compliment rather than a pejorative term.

#國難 #國難五金 #國難忠醫 #國難年宵

“國難” literally means “national crisis”. Chinese often associate it with the term “發國難財”, profit from national crises. However, it was appropriated to denote people or organizations offering logistical support during the movement. For example, “國難五金” is a hardware store selling cheap protective gear to protesters, “國難忠醫” is a group of Chinese medicine practitioners who treated protesters who were afraid of being caught when seeking medical help at public hospitals, and “國難年宵” refers to a series of Lunar New Year fairs organized by pro-movement citizens to discourage people to shop at the government-organized ones.


Human blood steamed bun. It first appeared in a novel written by the famous critical Chinese novelist Lu Xun in 1919. In this novel, people did not appreciate the sacrifice of the revolutionaries but used their blood to make buns, and ignorantly believed it can be used to cure tuberculosis. Since then, people who take advantage of the sacrifice of others are called this derogatory name.

2. Slogans


Guiding principles

#光復香港 時代革命

Usually translated as “Liberate Hong Kong, Revolution of our time”, the slogan was first used by Edward Leung Tin-Kei (梁天琦), the spokesperson of the pro-Hong Kong independence party, Hong Kong Indigenous, in the 2016 Hong Kong Legislative Council by-election. “Liberate” may not be a very accurate translation of the Chinese term “光復”, which literally means “restoring the light” or “restoring the glorious past”, but this translation is widely used because of the historical inspiration for the slogan. Guang Fu Hui, one of the three major revolutionary organizations against the Manchurian-led Qing Dynasty, used the phrase “光復漢族” (restoring the rule of the Han majority), as one of its motto. Thus, after protesters had adopted this slogan in late July 2019, both the Chinese and the Hong Kong governments condemned the protesters of inciting revolution and challenging state sovereignty.

#五大訴求 缺一不可

Five demands, not one less. And the five demands are as follows:

(1) full withdrawal of the extradition bill,
(2) retracting the characterization of the protests as riots,
(3) amnesty for all arrested protesters,
(4) universal suffrage for the Chief Executive and the Legislative Council, and
(5) an independent investigation into allegations of police brutality.

The first two demands, with two other demands “Carrie Lam steps down” and “release all injured student protesters”, were first shown on the placard displayed by Leung Ling-kit (梁凌杰) before he fell to his death while pleading with the government on 15 June 2019. The Civic Human Rights Front appropriated his idea, turned “release all injured student protesters” into “discharge all arrested protesters” and added (5), formulating the first version of the “five demands”. On 1 July 2019, some protesters who stormed into the Legislative Council Complex and used (4) to replace “Carrie Lam steps down” in their declaration, which was then widely adopted by other protesters as the new version of the five demands.


Perish together, mutual destruction, or “If we burn you burn with us”. A line borrowed from the movie The Hunger Games, and the “you” refers to China. It is a common Cantonese slang that originated from the Chinese poker game Big 2. When a player is going to win by having played all their cards while another player is holding too many cards, which will lead them to lose double or even triple (“炒”), the losing player will try to stop other players from playing their cards so they will all lose heavily together (“攬炒” – to “炒” together). Protesters adopted a similar strategy as they believed Hong Kong is useful to China and their ruling class. If they want to destroy Hong Kong, they should share the fate. It became popular probably because a LIHKG user called “我要攬炒” (I want to perish together) had proposed similar strategies since mid-June 2019 that were embraced by many protesters. For example, he proposed to demand that Western countries revoke the citizenship of top Hong Kong government officials. These strategies later evolved into the protesters’ campaign calling for international sanctions.

Related to the Hong Kong Police Force

#五大訴求+1 #解散警隊

Five demands plus one. The additional demand is the call to disband the police, or “解散警隊” in Chinese, as protesters believed an independent commission of inquiry is not enough to rebuild the police force.

#721唔見人 #831打死人 #101 槍殺人

These slogans refer to alleged police misconduct and non-action during protest events on those respective dates.

Not showing up on 21 July 2019. Thugs believed to be hired by the pro-government camp attacked people who they suspected were protesters and other passengers in the Yuen Long MTR Station on that date. Despite thousands of reports made to the emergency hotline for over 30 minutes, police did not arrive.

Beating people to death on 31 August 2019. Police attacked protesters and other passengers in the Prince Edward MTR Station, and it is alleged that some were beaten to death and their bodies removed from the scene.

Shooting people to death on 1 October 2019. A police officer shot an 18-year-old protester with a live round at close range in Tsuen Wan during the city-wide protests on National Day. The protester survived and was charged with rioting and assaulting police.

#好仔唔當差 當差正仆街

Good men will not join the police force and those who do must be wankers/assholes. A popular saying in Hong Kong in the 1960s during which the police force was highly corrupt.


Black (meaning corrupt) cops, may your whole family die. In fact, “死全家” (may your whole family die) is a popular curse in Cantonese. You can use this curse at anyone by adding the subject in front of it.


(Death of) Thirty thousand (police officers), thanks! It is an appropriation of the phrase “two boxes, thanks”, which was used by netizens in Hong Kong for buying or reserving face masks on Facebook during the early outbreak of the coronavirus. After a police officer was infected with the virus in February 2020, the phrase started trending to mean may all 30,000 officers on the force contract the virus.

#香港警察 知法犯法

Hong Kong police know the law but breaks it. “知法犯法” (knows the laws but breaks it) is a Chinese idiom to criticize office bearers for their misconduct.”

Related to the Chinese Communist Party


The heavens will annihilate the Chinese Communist Party. In traditional Chinese culture, “天” (commonly translated as heaven) is a personal god that rules the world and emperors were considered as the sons of heaven who hold its mandate to rule. This line became famous as practitioners of Falun Gong (a religious practice banned in China) in Hong Kong began using it to condemn the Chinese Communist Party since the 2000s.


May all (Chinese Communist) party members die, a quote from a viral video in Hong Kong dating back to 2013, in which a seemingly mentally ill old man shouted this curse at the Chinese Communist Party publicly. During the movement, protesters sarcastically said he was a prophet and adopted his curse. See, from 0:33-0.34

Forging solidarity

#齊上齊落 #一個都不能少

They mean “going up and down together” and “not one protester less”, respectively. Both slogans remind protesters that no one should be left behind, especially at protest sites.

#不篤灰 #不割蓆 #不分化 #核爆都唔割

The first three slogans are translated as “no snitching”, “no severing of ties”, and “no fomenting of splits”, respectively. “核爆都唔割”, no severing of ties (with protesters) even when a nuclear bomb explodes, is a more exaggerated version of “不割蓆”.

#和勇不分 #和勇同心 #和勇一家

“和” and “勇” as explained above refer to the peaceful and valiant protesters, respectively. “和勇不分”, “和勇同心”, and “和勇一家” mean, “no differentiation between peaceful and valiant protesters”, “peaceful and valiant protesters share the same mind” and “peaceful and valiant protesters are of the same family”, respectively. These slogans are to remind protesters and pro-movement citizens embracing different principles to be united, unlike the friction and split that occurred towards the end of the 2014 Umbrella Movement.

#兄弟爬山 各自努力

Translated as “brothers climb the mountain together, but by their own efforts”, meaning peaceful and valiant protesters are like brothers. Although they climb the mountain according to their own efforts and their own ways, they share the same goal.


Comrades are not condoms. Protesters created this slogan to remind their fellow protesters and pro-movement citizens that protesters, especially those valiant and imprisoned ones, should not be abandoned like a single-use condom but instead require continuous support and care from the rest of the movement.


Literally translated as “no catching of ghost” and means “say no to McCarthyism”. “鬼” (ghost) in Cantonese also means traitors. It is to remind protesters not to be oversuspicious, as many valiant protesters alleged that they were accused by other protesters as police at protest sites, thereby inadvertently exposing their identities.

Boosting morale


Literally translated as “may glory return to Hong Kong”, it is the name of a Cantonese march composed and written by a anonymous pro-movement musician during the protests. It became so popular that protesters generally regard it as the anthem of the protests, or even the national-anthem-to-be of Hong Kong. It is also the last line of the march, dropping the subject “I ” (我). See


Save our Hong Kong by ourselves. It is an appropriation of the common social movement slogan “自己國家自己救” (save our country by ourselves) in Taiwan . It first appeared as the theme of the Hong Kong July 1st annual march in 2014.


No retreat or dismissal. It is to remain protesters they should not give up before reaching their goals.

#香港人加油 #香港人反抗 #香港人報仇

Three messages dedicated to Hong Kong people, “香港人”. “加油”, literally translated as “add oil”, is a common cheering phrase in Cantonese. “反抗” means “resist” and “報仇” means “revenge”.


See you beneath “the pot”, the nickname of the sheltered protest area in front of the Legislative Council complex, which shaped like a pot. Protesters believes that they eventually could win the war and everyone can celebrate freely and commemorate their comrades there without wearing masks and other protective equipment. Protesters use this slogan to encourage their fellows.


Do not forget your original intention. It also serves to encourage protesters like “煲底見” when they feel lost or down.

On Political Views

#黃藍是政見 黑白是良知

Yellow or blue is a matter of political opinion, but black or white is a question of conscience. As explained above, the two colors represent the two camps in the movement. It is to question some government supporters for blindly supporting the Hong Kong government without noticing the fact, which is as clear as black and white.

#人一藍 腦便殘

Once you turn blue, you will become mentally retarded. Protesters and pro-movement citizens use this slogan to tease those government supporters (blue ribbon) of lacking analytical ability and blindly listening to what the Hong Kong government have said.


There is no rioters, just tyranny. Protesters used this slogan to counter the Hong Kong government’s claim that they were rioters.


It was you who taught me that peaceful marches are useless. This slogan was first left by protesters stormed into the Legislative Council Complex on 1 July 2019 to criticize the Hong Kong government for not being responsive to the peaceful protests in the past, leading to their extreme action.

#香港曱甴 時代垃圾

Hong Kong cockroaches, Trash of the time. It is a mocking of “光復香港 時代革命” (liberate Hong Kong, Revolution of our time) by pro-government citizens.

3. Mobilization, Consumerism, Action and Communication



#集氣 #全球集氣 #海外集氣

“集氣”, literally translated as “collecting gas”, is a term derived from the Japanese comics DRAGON BALL, meaning collecting the support or energy from people (to get things done), or to hope for something to happen by making wish collectively. For example, some middle-aged female pro-movement citizens organized “集氣大會”, gas collection assemblies, to show support to their sons and daughters. “全球” means “global”, while “海外” means overseas. “全球集氣” or “海外集氣” are campaigns or actions from abroad showing solidarity to the Hong Kong protests.

#已獲不反 #有不反

“不反” is the abbreviation of “不反對通知書” (letter of no objection). It is a document issued by the Hong Kong police to authorized public assemblies and protests, which is a colonial legacy. Protests organizers will claim they have obtained the letter (“已獲不反” or “有不反”) to attract peaceful protesters.


Literally translated as “to blow the chicken”, it means blowing the whistle to summon fellows, as chicken in Cantonese also means whistle. It normally appeared in posters or internet forum for mobilization of a particular event or campaign.


Need people, the same as “吹雞”.



Yellow Economic Circle. A consumer campaign calling for pro-movement citizens to purchase goods and services from businesses whose owners support the movement and to boycott those whose owners are against it. Numerous social media sites and mobile phone applications have been developed to help people identifying business supporting or opposing the movement.


Conscientious Economic Circle, same as Yellow Economic Circle

#黃店 #藍店 #白店

“店” means shop. Adding the prefix “黃” (yellow) indicates that shop supports the movement, and vice versa for “藍” (blue). Those indicated by “白” (white) are those could not be classified, possibly because of the lack of evidence.


“黑心集團”, literally translated as the “black-hearted” company, is the nickname of the food and beverage company Maxim’s Caterers Limited (美心集團, literally translated as “beautiful-hearted” company). Protesters took this nickname by turning its first character “美”(beautiful) to “黑” (black) for sarcasm, as Annie Wu, the eldest daughter of the company founder, repeatedly criticized protesters in various Chinese media outlets.

#裝修 #黑裝修,紅裝飾,藍罷買,黃幫襯 (黃懲罰)

“Renovate” actually means vandalize in the Hong Kong protests. First, protesters vandalized all premises of businesses opposing the movement, such as restaurants owned or run by franchise by Maxim’s Caterers Limited to show their anger. Later on, they developed a scheme to reduce unnecessary vandalism and to better manifest their rationale. “黑裝修”, to renovate (vandalize) those in “black”, like government offices, and Best Mart 360, a snacks store run by a Fujianese businessman, who was accused of having ties to “Fujian gangs” that attacked protesters; “紅裝飾”, to decorate (posting labels, locking the door, and other milder destruction, etc.) those in “red”, like premises of Maxim’s or other state-owned businesses; “藍罷買”, to boycott those in “blue”; and “黃懲罰” or “黃幫襯”, to punish (by money) or to consume in those in “yellow”.


#和你 – 飛/Lunch/塞/寫/拖/唱/shop/寄/投/宵/返工/行/跑/讀/影/摺/傾/砌

“和你”, meaning “with you”, is a made-up prefix by protesters for describing campaigns or actions that peaceful protesters could crowd into, as “和” itself also mean peaceful and “with you” gives a strong sense of solidarity. The first action with “和你” was “和你飛” (“to fly with you”, named so to imitate the Cantonese pronunciation of “和理非”) of 26 July 2019, on which practitioners of the aviation industry struck and sit in in the Hong Kong International Airport along with thousands of citizens. Since then, protesters started to name actions or campaigns using this prefix. For example, “和你lunch” means going out from office to protest during lunchtime. And “和你塞” means to block (塞) the metro from running or to block the main highway of the city.


Blossom everywhere. It is a Chinese idiom which means something good is happening or developing everywhere. In the Hong Kong protests, it was a strategy to initiate confrontations in as many as areas, often in a hit-and-run manner, so as to exhaust and divert the attention of the police.


The three suspensions. Three strategies with the Chinese character “罷” (suspensions), which are strike (罷工), class boycott (罷課), and shipowners stop running their businesses (罷市). Protesters called for these three suspensions on 11 November 2019 to force the government to respond to their demands.


Literally translated as “boycott condor”, it is a made-up guardian like animal (like “獅鳥”). Protesters used this term as a operation code when they were marching in shipping malls to ask people to boycott those blue shops or to obstruct them from running, saying that they were summoning their “guardian like animal”.

#香港停擺日 #黎明行動 #晨曦行動 #破曉行動 #曙光行動 #旭日行動 #OperationDawn

“香港停擺日”, translated as “the day that Hong Kong stood still”, was the campaign that protesters called for to stop the city from running started from 11 November 2019, either by the three suspensions or their obstruction through various mean, such as road blockage, obstructing the metro to run, drivers driving slowly to congest the traffic.  They used 5 Chinese terms, “黎明”, “晨曦”, “破曉”, “曙光” , and “旭日”, which all mean dawn, as their operation code to denote their campaign of Monday to Friday, which started from early morning, respectively. In English, they are all named “Operation Dawn”, or with “1.0” to “5.0” to denote the weekday respectively.

#香港之路 The Hong Kong Way

The Hong Kong Way (香港之路) was a peaceful political campaign held on 23 August 2019. Inspired by the Baltic Way demonstration of 1989, thousands of Hong Kong people joined hands that day to create a human chain of 50 kilometres long along the three main metro lines and over the top of Lion Rock, a hill in Hong Kong carrying a strong cultural symbol of solidarity. The goal of the campaign was to draw people’s attention to the movement and to show the solidarity of pro-movement citizens.


Dreaming. Protesters sometimes would like to share their experiences during the protests on the internet. However, there were scenes that violated the law, and thus they said they were just sharing what they had dreamt of.


Literally means “to disperse like water”, it is a Cantonese slang which means to dismiss or to end. Protesters or pro-movement citizens observing the protests used this term to ask their fellows to dismiss, possibly because the police was going to take action or encircle the protest site.


Picking up kids after school. Sometimes, public transport were shut down during protests or stopped service because the protests lasted until mid-night. Then, “parents”, those middle-aged pro-movement citizens would come to pick their “kids”, young protesters, driving them back to home.

#be water

The quote from Bruce Lee, the famous martial art movie star from Hong Kong. It is to remind protesters they have to learn a lesson from the 2014 Umbrella Movement, to be as flexible as water, to hit and run, and not to occupy or stay at an area for a sustained period, so as to exhaust the police.


“私了” means “to settle behind closed doors”, notably without the involvement of the higher or the public authority. There were several alleged incidents that pro-movement citizens were attacked by pro-government citizens and the police did not show up or failed to catch the perpetrators. So, some pro-movement citizens proposed to defend themselves by using necessary force or even by summoning their fellows. The term “獅鳥” (literally translated as Lion-bird), which pronounces the same as “私了” in Cantonese, was thus made up. When protesters were under attack, they said they had to call their “guardian animal” – “獅鳥”, meaning using physical to protect themselves or even to fight back. Sometimes, people will use the obsolete Chinese character “鶳” to replace “獅鳥” in text communication, as this character shared part of the structure of the two character “獅” and “鳥”.


Fishball Revolution. It is how the pro-independence protesters called the 2016 Mong Kok civil unrest. On 8 February 2016, the Hong Kong government tried to crackdown on unlicensed street hawkers selling street food, including Fishball. Eventually, violent clashes broke out between police and protesters.


Fucking shout at 10 p.m. Proposed by some LIHKG forum users in late August 2019, it requested pro-movement citizens to open their windows to shout different slogans  at 10 p.m. every night to show their support to the movement.


To stop tyranny by force. As peaceful protests were not effectively, protesters believed they have to use physical force to stop the Hong Kong government


Literally translated as quiet chicken, it is a Cantonese slang to describe somebody doing something secretly without being noticed. Protesters said so to remind their fellows to keep silent and not to reveal any details of their illegal actions.



Lennon Wall. Like the one in Prague during the communist reign, Lennon Wall in Hong Kong refers to places that different people could post encouraging messages to their fellows. It first appeared during the 2014 Umbrella Movement at a wall of the Central Government Complex. It reappeared during the recent movements, at more than 100 locations across Hong Kong, including transport interchanges, housing estates, secondary schools, universities, “yellow shops”, etc. But unlike the one in 2014, they also served as education sites and information hub for the general public, with poster showcasing police brutality, government wrongdoing, or news that would be shown in the alleged pro-government free TV channel TVB. There were also Lennon Wall installations across the world, showing support to the Hong Kong protests. See also


Posters for the elderly. They refer those posters that could easily go viral in the digital communication between elderly, notably with very big font size, simple background with little design, and messages closely related to the lifestyle of elderly (sending good wishes, spreading friendly messages, tips for health, etc.). This style of posters is usually despised by the younger generation, including that of the Hong Kong. But to gain the support of the elderly, protesters in Hong Kong tried to design posters in this format and posted them to Lennon Wall to gain the attention of the elderly.


Share if you agree, a common phrase appeared in “長輩圖”. Protesters added this phrase in their deliberately to better imitate this style.


Dog that tears paper. It refers to people that tore off posters from the Lennon Wall.


If you tear off one (poster), I will post one hundreds (poster) more. Commonly appeared in posters on Lennon Wall, it served to warn pro-government citizens not to tear off posters.

# G Chi

Having a similar pronunciation of “支持” (support) in Cantonese, netizens in Hong Kong use it to replace the word support when they are too lazy to type its Chinese counterpart.


The high seas, which is a metaphor of public discussion group in mobile communication applications. As police may infiltrate into these public groups, the administrator would repeatedly notice protesters they are in the “”high seas”” and should avoid leaking sensitive information or discussing matters that may violate the law. ”


Newspaper cutting format. It refers to a style of poster which simulates newspaper, notably in black and white for mass production and with clear font and short title for easier reading.

#已fc #已Fact Check

Both mean fact-checked already (fc is the acronym of fact-checked). Pro-movement citizens added this hashtag in their messages to indicate their authenticity. However, people also criticized that this label has been abused, which help the spreading of disinformation or misinformation.


Share by copy and paste. If pro-movement citizens want to protect the information source or they totally agree with the message, they will just copy and paste the message instead of using the forwarding or sharing function to spread the original message in social media applications and platforms.


LIHKG or “連登” is a Reddit-like Hong Kong forum. It serves as a platform for protesters to discuss strategies during the movement. See

4. The Hong Kong Government, the Chinese Communist Party, Supporters of the Hong Kong Government and the Hong Kong Police Force


The Hong Kong Government, the Chinese Communist Party, and the Supporters of the Hong Kong government

#林奠 #柒婆 #777

They are all pejorative nicknames of the Hong Kong’s Chief Executive Carrie Lam. In Chinese, Carrie Lam is often called “林鄭”, a combination of her married name “林”(Lam) and maiden name “鄭” (Cheng). Protesters called her “林奠” by dropping a radical from the Chinese character of her maiden name “鄭”. It serves as a death curse to her as “奠” means libation. She is also called “777” as she obtained the same number of vote from the 1,194-member appointed Election Committee of Hong Kong Chief Execution Election in 2017. And of the same reason, she was called “柒婆” (the old woman (婆) who is dorky or embarrassed herself), as “柒” also means seven.


The pejorative nickname of The Liaison Office of the Central People’s Government of the People’s Republic of China in the Hong Kong, which is called “中聯辦” in short in Chinese. The pan-democrats have long accused the office of interfering into the local politics, like coordinating the election campaign of pro-establishment candidates. Protesters thus replaced the term “中聯” by”支那”, a largely archaic name of China in Asia, which is perceived as derogatory by the Chinese after the second Sino-Japanese War (part of the WWII).


Literally translated as “to celebrate his old mother”, it was the response of protesters to the National Day of the People’s Republic of China on 1 October 2019, which actually means the opposite of celebrate (賀) as it was made up to imitate the Cantonese swear “佢老母” (his mother, omitting the f-word in front it).


A made-up word combining China and Nazi, as protesters alleged that the atrocities committed by the Chinese Communist Party, not only in Hong Kong but also in Xinjiang or other Chinese territories, are comparable to those of committed by the Nazi.

#小熊維尼 甴近平

Winnie the Pooh, the nickname of the President of China, Xi Jingping. It became popularized after Xi visited the US in 2013, which an image of Xi and the US former president Barack Obama walking together spurred comparisons to a cartoon image of Winnie (Xi) walking with Tigger (Obama).


The Old People’s Liberation Army. Chinese usually use the character “老” to denote familiarity. The army is named so possibly because there were rumors throughout the movement that the it would be dispatched to crackdown the protests like what happened during the 1989 Tiananmen Incident.


The communist dogs, pointing to the supporters of the Chinese Communist Party in Hong Kong, as dogs also mean lackeys or hired hugs in Chinese culture .


The party who protect the emperor. A derogatory nickname of the pro-establishment party Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong, whose members are always accused of voting favor the Hong Kong government in Legislative Council and defending the position of the government.


The evils that betray Hong Kong. It was used to denote government officials or other pro-Chinese Communist Party figures.


Ho the devil, the derogatory nickname of Junius Ho, the pro-government and pro-China lawmaker, who was alleged of hiring thugs to attack protesters and citizens in Yuen Long district on 21 July 2019.


The fat mother, the nickname of the Portuguese-Chinese mixed Hong Kong singer Maria Cordero. She is a supporter of the Hong Kong government. To mock her, protesters remixed her speech delivered in a pro-government assembly into the melody of the song Chandelier (sung by Australian singer Sia) to compose the song “肥媽有話兒” (Fat mother has something to say) to criticize the Hong Kong police. It became viral and thus “肥媽” also served as the shortened name of the song. See for a remake version with English subtitle.

#黨鐵 #党鉄 #黨媒

“黨” or “党”, both Chinese characters mean party. Protesters used them as prefixes for denoting someone or some parties who are loyal to the Hong Kong government,and eventually to the Chinese Communist Party. For example, “黨鐵”, meaning the CCP’s railway, was the nickname of MTR, the only metro company. The was accused of following the order of the Hong Kong government to close metro stations to stop protesters from rallying or retreating and facilitating the deployment police.

Hong Kong Police Force

#黑警 #克警 #POPO

All are derogatory nicknames of the Hong Kong police. “黑警”, literally translated as black cops, means the black-hearted or corrupt cops, while “popo” comes from the song “FUCKTHEPOPO/屌狗” composed by the local rapper JB, which criticizes the police (See Sometimes, “克” (self-restrained) was used to replace “黑”, both pronounced the same in Cantonese, to mock the Hong Kong police for repeatedly saying that they were self-restrained but did the opposite in the eyes of protesters.

#黃色物體 #Yellow Object #綠色物體 #Green Object

The term “黃色物體” (Yellow Object) became viral after a senior police officer suggested that a man wearing a yellow shirt, whom police officers were accused of abusing in a video captured, was in fact a “yellow object”. To express their anger and to mock the police, protesters started to call the police as “綠色物體” (Green Object), as riot police wore green uniform.

#曱甴 #曱甴屋 #曱甴車

“曱甴” (cockroach) was first used by some frontline police officer to label protesters. Later, protesters appropriated this term to name the police and as a prefix to denote anything related to the police. For example, “曱甴車” means police’s vehicle and “曱甴屋” means police quarters.


“新屋嶺” (San Uk Ling) is the name of a detention centre of the Hong Kong police, named after its location, a very remote area near the border between Hong Kong and the mainland China. Protesters alleged that they were physically bullied and sexually harassed by the police when being detained there.

#狗 #犬隻 #狗私 #狗車 #狗屋 #狗出沒情報

Both “狗” or “犬隻” means dogs. It was used to denote police, as dogs in Chinese cultural also means lackeys or hired hugs. Thus, it was also used as a prefix to denote anything related to the police. For example, “狗私” means private vehicles of the police, “狗車” means police vehicles, “狗屋” means police quarters, and “狗出沒情報” means intelligence on police’s presence.

#吠吠會 #狗招 #四點大話會 #警謊

The first three terms all mean press conferences held by the Hong Kong police. “狗招” and “吠吠會” literally mean the press conference of dogs and of the barking dogs respectively, while “四點大話會” means the “the lying meeting at 4 o’clock”, as press conferences of the police were held at 4 p.m. normally. “警謊” (the lying police) was also used to denote the Hong Kong police as protesters alleged that police officers lied during press conferences.

#殺人狗 #跟尾狗 #撚狗 #咬人

As dogs were used to denote police officers, different adjectives or verbs were added in front of the Chinese character “狗”. For example, “殺人狗” means killer police, “跟尾狗” means a police officer who is tracking someone, and “撚狗” means to verbally insult or provoke the police. “咬人”, which literally means biting people, means police is attacking or arresting someone.


“Freedom cunt” appeared in a viral video that showed a police officer shouting at protesters using this term. However, it may be a misrecognition of a common Cantonese curse “豬閪” (pig cunt), which means stupid. This made-up word became so popular that protesters take it as a compliment. See


The “Yi Jin Boy”. Yi Jin is a study programme for students who do not progress to secondary school and adult learners to obtain a formal qualification for employment and further study. However, it is not well recognised as Hong Kong people, like many Asians, put a lot of value on academic credentials. Because many junior grade police officers are graduates of the Yi Jin programme, this term essentially is derogatory, labelling them as low achievers who could only make a living by being the lackeys of the government.


The police and gangsters cooperate. Hong Kong police are accused of cooperating with gangsters, like on 21 July 2019 in Yuen Long. On that day, thugs attacked protesters and other passengers in the Yuen Long MTR Station but no police showed up for more than 30 minutes despite thousands of reports being made to the emergency hotline.

#恐怖份子 #恐襲

The Hong Kong police are called “恐怖份子” (terrorists) as they are accused of attacking citizens and protesters indiscriminately and disproportionately. Thus, operations of police are also called “恐襲” (terrorist attacks).


Fake school buses. Sometimes, police would disguise as pro-movement citizens who provide pick-up service for protesters (school bus service). These vehicles used by police were then named as fake school buses, and their plate numbers would be circulated online to warn protesters.

#黑旗 #藍旗 #黃旗 #紅旗 #橙旗 #紫旗

The flags (旗) of different colours used by the Hong Kong police to warn protesters.
Yellow (黃): Police cordon, do not cross.
Red (紅): Stop charging or we use force.
Black (黑): Warning — tear smoke.
Orange (橙): Disperse or we fire.
Blue (藍): this meeting is in breach of the law.
Purple (紫): you may be in breach of the National Security Law


The water cannon blue. It refers to the colour of the solution used by the police’s riot control vehicles mounted with water cannons.


The coloured water. It refers to the coloured solution used by the police’s riot control vehicles mounted with water cannons.


You will not scare me. On 21 July 2019, mobs attacked protesters and other passengers returning home in the Yuen Long MTR Station. A police officer commanding a nearby district responded with this line when asked by journalists why no police showed up during the attack and no arrests were made afterwards. See, starting from 2:50, with English subtitles.


Reporter (記者), your mother. A police officer once shouted this curse to a reporter, as “你老母” (your mother) is the common abbreviation for the Cantonese curse “屌你老母” (fxxx your mother) with the f-word (屌) dropped.


Ask your Jesus Christ to come and see us. A pastor alleged a police officer said that to him when the pastor advised the officer to give warning before dispersing the crowd. Many Christians found this deeply offensive and requested an apology from the police chief.

#被自殺 #被跳樓 #被跳海

The Chinese character “被” denotes the passivity of an action. Protesters alleged police killed protesters then covering them up by saying people “committed suicide” (自殺), either by “jumping from a building” (跳樓) or “jumping into the sea” (跳海). By adding the character “被” in front of these terms, it turns the actions to mean “were suicided”.

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